Estado simbólico del trono mogol

Estado simbólico del trono mogol


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El poder de Mughal comenzó a declinar después de la muerte de Aurangzeb.

Dentro de los 30 años de su muerte, los mogoles perdieron la mayoría de sus posesiones del sur de la India. Los nuevos estados fueron establecidos por 3 nobles principales, Sadat Ali Khan, Murshid ul Kuli Khan y Qamar ud Din Khan, incluso cuando el trono vio a 8 gobernantes en 12 años. Pero todos se declararon fieles al trono de Mughal, aunque cada uno individualmente era más fuerte que el trono de Delhi.

El ejército de Shahuji en virtud de un tratado con los hermanos Sayyid, simplemente entró en la capital mogol y depuso a Farrukhsiyar, el emperador gobernante. Pero el Tratado no se trataba de compartir el botín. Shahuji, en el tratado, acordó aceptar el gobierno del trono mogol en Deccan, y a cambio se le garantizó Swaraj, autogobierno y derechos a los ingresos, en el mismo Deccan mogol.

Los Marathas tenían el control efectivo de más del 70% del subcontinente indio en 1758. Habían saqueado Delhi varias veces. El imperio mogol, no era un interesado, en la dinámica de poder en absoluto.

Entonces, ¿por qué fueron retenidos en el trono como gobernantes títeres? Incluso después de la Tercera Batalla de Panipat, Ahmed Durrani después de la victoria, antes de partir hacia Afganistán, instaló a Shah Alam II como emperador mogol y emitió firman a todos los jefes indios para que lo reconocieran como gobernante.

En 1772, Mahadji escoltó al entonces depuesto, e incluso ciego, Shah Alam II, desde Allahabad a Delhi para coronarlo nuevamente como rey. Y luego, obtuvo títulos reales en la corte y gobernó el estado, en nombre del Emperador.

Y muchas más instancias. En 1857, los cipayos del motín irrumpieron en Delhi, y el emperador casi se vio obligado a aceptar ser el líder del motín, y desde allí, los cipayos lo proclamaron nuevamente Emperador de la India. La pregunta que tengo es, ¿por qué se usó el trono de Mughal como símbolo para gobernar en la India? ¿Por qué no fue simplemente abolido y terminado? ¿Por qué los poderes no gobernaron en su propio nombre? ¿Por qué el trono de Mughal no fue simplemente abolido hace mucho tiempo y se desvaneció en el olvido?


Encontré algo interesante. Este es Benoît de Boigne. En 1783 tuvo una audiencia, con el emperador en Delhi proponiendo el descubrimiento de nuevas rutas comerciales. Pero el Emperador pospuso cualquier decisión. Al día siguiente de la audiencia, un edicto imperial otorgó a Mahadji Sindhia el gobierno de las provincias de Delhi y Agra. En otras palabras, Sindhia se convirtió en el regente imperial y el poder real, mientras que el emperador Shah Alam, sin ser depuesto, ahora era solo una figura decorativa. En 1790, de Boigne resumió la política india de la época:

"El respeto hacia la casa de Timur [la dinastía Moghul] es tan fuerte que, aunque todo el subcontinente ha sido retirado de su autoridad, ningún príncipe de la India ha tomado el título de soberano. Sindhia compartió este respeto, y Shah Alam [Shah Alam II] todavía estaba sentado en el trono mogol, y todo se hacía en su nombre ".

Mantengo el correo abierto


En una palabra: prestigio; y por tanto legitimidad.

Es un sentimiento similar el que revivió el Imperio Romano después de su disolución, primero por Carlomagno en el 800 d.C. y luego un intento fallido de Hitler (el tercer Reich) a principios del siglo XX.

En la política contemporánea, uno puede ver los intentos de establecer el califato islámico bajo una luz similar.


Actualmente estoy leyendo la historia de la India desde el 800 dC hasta el 1500 dC. Lo que encontré es que cada vez que alguien se declara gobernante, otros se unen para atacarlo y provocar la caída de la familia de dichos gobernantes. Es más fácil gobernar en nombre de algún gobernante títere distante y recaudar ingresos y no preocuparse por las atrocidades, ya que se cometieron en nombre del emperador.

Son mis propios pensamientos y no tengo ningún artículo que respalde esto.


Decadencia del Imperio Mughal en India

La historia de la India, así como del mundo, se ha dividido en tres períodos: antiguo, medieval y moderno.

Se cree que la muerte de Aurangzeb marcó el comienzo del período moderno. Se considera que esta historia concluye con el logro de la independencia en 1947.

¿Es & # 8216modern & # 8217 un término adecuado y aceptable para describir este período de la historia?

Incluso si podemos referirnos a diferentes períodos históricos, en los que ocurrieron cambios y surgieron características distintivas, no podemos fijar fechas precisas para ningún período específico. Cada período nació del anterior. Pero gradualmente cada uno desarrolló sus propias características distintivas.

Fuente de la imagen: c14608526.r26.cf2.rackcdn.com/A91D9F3E-BDD2-44A7-A1F1-6614AF4C11FD.jpg

La idea de lo & # 8216modern & # 8217 ha venido de Occidente. Está asociado al desarrollo de la ciencia, la razón, la libertad, la igualdad y la democracia. Si usamos el término & # 8216modern & # 8217 para el período de dominio británico en India, aceptamos que estos principios fueron introducidos en India por los británicos.

Una forma alternativa, entonces, es caracterizar este período como & # 8216colonial & # 8217. El establecimiento y la expansión del dominio británico, y la transformación que lo acompaña en los mundos político, económico, social y cultural, son parte de este dominio colonial.

Decadencia de los mogoles:

El período de los grandes mogoles, que comenzó en 1526 con la adhesión de Babur al trono, terminó con la muerte de Aurangzeb en 1707. La muerte de Aurangzeb marcó el final de una era en la historia de la India. Cuando murió Aurangzeb, el imperio de los mogoles era el más grande de la India. Sin embargo, unos cincuenta años después de su muerte, el Imperio Mughal se desintegró.

La muerte de Aurangzeb fue seguida por una guerra de sucesión entre sus tres hijos. Terminó con la victoria del hermano mayor, el príncipe Muazzam. El príncipe de sesenta y cinco años ascendió al trono bajo el nombre de Bahadur Shah.

Bahadur Shah (1707 d.C.-1712 d.C.):

Bahadur Shah siguió una política de compromiso y conciliación y trató de conciliar a los Rajputs, Marathas, Bundelas, Jats y Sikhs. Durante su reinado, los Marathas y los Sikhs se hicieron más poderosos. También tuvo que enfrentarse a la revuelta de los sijs. Bahadur Shah murió en 1712.

Las guerras de sucesión, que habían sido una característica habitual entre los mogoles, se habían agudizado después de la muerte de Bahadur Shah. Esto fue especialmente así porque los nobles se habían vuelto muy poderosos. Diferentes facciones de nobles apoyaron a los aspirantes al trono rivales para ocupar altos puestos.

Jahandar Shah (1712 d.C.-1713 d.C.):

Jahandar Shah, que sucedió a Bahadur Shah, era débil e incompetente. Estaba controlado por nobles y solo pudo gobernar durante un año.

Farrukhsiyar (1713 d.C.-1719 d.C.):

Farrukhsiyar ascendió al trono con la ayuda de los hermanos Sayyid, a quienes popularmente se les llamaba & # 8216kingmakers & # 8217. Estaba controlado por los hermanos Sayyid, quienes eran la verdadera autoridad detrás del poder mogol. Cuando trató de liberarse de su control, fue asesinado por ellos.

Mohammad Shah (1719 d.C.-1748 d.C.):

Los Sayyids ayudaron a Mohammad Shah, a ascender al trono al nieto de 18 años de Bahadur Shah. Aprovechando el débil gobierno de Mohammad Shah y la constante rivalidad entre las diversas facciones de la nobleza, algunos nobles poderosos y ambiciosos establecieron estados virtualmente independientes. Hyderabad, Bengala, Awadh y Rohilkhand ofrecieron lealtad nominal al emperador mogol. El Imperio Mughal prácticamente se disolvió.

El largo reinado de Mohammad Shah de casi 30 años (1719-1748 d.C.) fue la última oportunidad de salvar el imperio. Cuando comenzó su reinado, el prestigio mogol entre la gente seguía siendo una fuerza política importante. Un gobernante fuerte podría haber salvado a la dinastía. Pero Mohammad Shah no estuvo a la altura de la tarea. Descuidó los asuntos del estado y nunca apoyó plenamente a los wazirs capaces.

Nadir Shah & # 8217s Invasión:

La condición de la India con sus gobernantes incompetentes, una administración débil y una fuerza militar deficiente atrajeron a los invasores extranjeros. Nadir Shah, el gobernante de Persia, atacó Punjab en 1739. Mohammad Shah fue fácilmente derrotado y encarcelado. Nadir Shah marchó hacia Delhi. Nadir Shah fue un invasor feroz.

Masacró a miles de personas en Delhi. Delhi pareció desierta durante días. Sin embargo, Mohammad Shah fue reinstalado en el trono. Nadir Shah llevó consigo el diamante Kohinoor y el trono Peacock de Shah Jahan. Al saquear una gran ciudad como Delhi, obtuvo una enorme riqueza.

La invasión de Nadir Shah dio un golpe aplastante al ya tambaleante Imperio Mughal y aceleró el proceso de su desintegración. El reino de Mohammad Shah estaba prácticamente confinado a Delhi y sus alrededores. Murió en 1748.

Mohammad Shah fue sucedido por varios gobernantes ineficientes Ahmad Shah (1748-1754), Alamgir II (1754-1759), Shah Alam II (1759-1806), Akbar II (1806-1837) y Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857). ). Durante el gobierno de Alamgir II, la Compañía de las Indias Orientales luchó en la Batalla de Plassey en 1757 y derrotó a Siraj-ud-Daulah, el Nawab de Bengala. De esta manera se establecieron en Bengala.

En 1761, durante el reinado de Shah Alam II, Ahmad Shah Abdali, el gobernante independiente de Afganistán, invadió la India. Conquistó Punjab y marchó hacia Delhi. Para entonces, los Marathas habían extendido su influencia hasta Delhi. Por tanto, una guerra entre los Marathas y Ahmad Shah Abdali era inevitable.

En la Tercera Batalla de Panipat, los Marathas fueron completamente derrotados. Perdieron miles de soldados junto con sus muy buenos generales. Se vieron obligados a retirarse al Deccan. La invasión de Ahmad Shah Abdali debilitó aún más al Imperio Mughal.

Shah Alam II otorgó el Dewani de Bengala, Bihar y Orissa a la Compañía de las Indias Orientales en 1765. Esto permitió a la Compañía recaudar ingresos de estas áreas. También mostró que la autoridad mogol fue reconocida por los gobernantes indios. El gobierno mughal llegó formalmente a su fin cuando Bahadur Shah fue depuesto y deportado a Rangún por la Compañía de las Indias Orientales (1757).

Causas del declive del Imperio Mughal:

1. Guerras de sucesión:

Los mogoles no siguieron ninguna ley de sucesión como la ley de primogenitura. En consecuencia, cada vez que moría un gobernante, comenzaba una guerra de sucesión entre los hermanos por el trono. Esto debilitó al Imperio Mughal, especialmente después de Aurangzeb. Los nobles, al ponerse del lado de uno u otro contendiente, aumentaron su propio poder.

2. Políticas de Aurangzeb & # 8217s:

Aurangzeb no se dio cuenta de que el vasto Imperio Mughal dependía del apoyo voluntario de la gente. Perdió el apoyo de los Rajputs que habían contribuido en gran medida a la fuerza del Imperio. Habían actuado como pilares de apoyo, pero la política de Aurangzeb los convirtió en enemigos acérrimos. Las guerras con los sikhs, los marathas, los jats y los rajputs habían agotado los recursos del imperio mogol.

3. Sucesores débiles de Aurangzeb:

Los sucesores de Aurangzeb eran débiles y se convirtieron en víctimas de las intrigas y conspiraciones de los nobles dominados por las facciones. Eran generales ineficaces e incapaces de reprimir las revueltas. La ausencia de un gobernante fuerte, una burocracia eficiente y un ejército capaz había debilitado al Imperio Mughal.

4. Tesorería vacía:

El celo de Shah Jahan por la construcción había agotado la tesorería. Las largas guerras de Aurangzeb en el sur habían agotado aún más el tesoro.

5. Invasiones:

Las invasiones extranjeras minaron la fuerza restante de los mogoles y aceleraron el proceso de desintegración. Las invasiones de Nadir Shah y Ahmad Shah Abdali dieron como resultado un mayor drenaje de la riqueza. Estas invasiones sacudieron la estabilidad misma del imperio.

6. Tamaño del Imperio y desafío de las potencias regionales:

El Imperio Mughal se había vuelto demasiado grande para ser controlado por cualquier gobernante de un centro, es decir, Delhi. Los grandes mogoles eran eficientes y ejercían control sobre los ministros y el ejército, pero los mogoles posteriores fueron malos administradores. Como resultado, las provincias distantes se independizaron. El surgimiento de estados independientes condujo a la desintegración del Imperio Mughal.

Los gobernantes mogoles posteriores (1707 d.C.-1857 d.C.):

Surgimiento de estados independientes en el siglo XVIII:

Con el declive del Imperio Mughal, varias provincias se separaron del imperio y surgieron varios estados independientes.

Hyderabad:

El estado de Hyderabad fue fundado por Qamar-ud-din Siddiqi, quien fue nombrado virrey del Deccan, con el título de Nizam-ul-Mulk, por el emperador Farrukhsiyar en 1712. Estableció un estado virtualmente independiente pero regresó a Delhi durante el reinado del emperador Mohammad Shah. En 1724, fue nombrado virrey del Deccan con el título de Asaf Jah. Fundó la dinastía Asaf Jah. Sus sucesores fueron conocidos como los Nizams de Hyderabad.

Asaf Jah gobernó Deccan con mano firme, aplastó a los zamindars rebeldes y poderosos y estableció una administración fuerte. Puso a su nominado, Anwar-ud-din, en el trono de Arcot. Después de su muerte en 1748, Hyderabad se convirtió en presa fácil de vecinos poderosos. Las empresas comerciales europeas comenzaron a interferir en la política interna de Hyderabad para sus propios beneficios egoístas.

El Carnatic:

El Carnatic era una de las provincias de Mughals en Deccan y estaba bajo la autoridad del Nizam de Hyderabad. Sin embargo, en la práctica, el Carnatic era virtualmente independiente bajo su nawab.

Bengala:

Bengala en el siglo XVIII comprendía Bengala, Bihar y Orissa. Murshid Quli Khan fue el Diwan de Bengala bajo Aurangzeb. Farrukhsiyar lo nombró Subedar (gobernador) de Bengala en 1717.

Aprovechando la creciente debilidad de la autoridad central, Murshid Quli Khan se volvió prácticamente independiente. Murshid Quli Khan (1717-27) y sus sucesores Shuja-ud-Daula (1727-39) y Alivardi Khan (1739-1756) dieron a Bengala un largo período de paz y administración estable.

Los tres gobernantes alentaron el comercio pero mantuvieron un control estricto sobre las empresas comerciales extranjeras. Alivardi Khan no permitió que las empresas comerciales inglesas y francesas fortificaran sus posesiones en Bengala.

Sin embargo, los nawabs de Bengala no lograron construir un ejército y una armada fuertes. Tampoco lograron prevenir la corrupción entre los funcionarios. Tampoco destruyeron firmemente la tendencia de la Compañía de las Indias Orientales a usar la fuerza. Su ignorancia de la situación en Europa resultó costosa. Bengala fue la primera provincia en ser conquistada por la Compañía de las Indias Orientales.

Awadh:

La subah de Awadh comprendía Benaras y algunos distritos cerca de Allahabad. Saadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk fue nombrado gobernador de Awadh por el emperador mogol. Pero pronto se independizó. Estableció una administración fuerte, aplastó el poder de los grandes zamindars y trajo la ley y el orden en el país.

Su sucesor, Safdar Jang, le dio a Awadh un largo período de paz y prosperidad. La autoridad de los gobernantes Awadh se extendía hasta Rohil-khand, un territorio al este de Delhi.

Mysore:

A principios del siglo XVIII, Mysore fue gobernado por un rey hindú. Después de la muerte del rey, Hyder Ali tomó el trono. Aunque analfabeto, Hyder Ali fue un administrador eficiente. Se convirtió en el gobernante de Mysore cuando Hyder Ali era un estado débil y dividido.

Pero en poco tiempo convirtió a Mysore en una de las principales potencias indias. Modernizó el ejército y expandió su reino mediante conquistas. Fue lo suficientemente fuerte como para emerger como un rival de los británicos.

Los reinos de Rajput:

Aprovechando la creciente debilidad del poder mogol, los estados de Rajput se volvieron virtualmente independientes. Pero los jefes de Rajput continuaron divididos como antes. La mayoría de los estados de Rajput estuvieron involucrados en pequeñas disputas y guerras civiles.

Raja Sawai Jai Singh de Amber (1681-1743) fue un renombrado gobernante Rajput. Fundó la ciudad de Jaipur. También erigió observatorios con instrumentos precisos y avanzados en Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi y Mathura. Con el surgimiento de los Marathas, la influencia de Rajput comenzó a disminuir.

El punjab:

Fue bajo el liderazgo de Guru Gobind Singh, el décimo y último Guru de los sikhs que la comunidad se convirtió en una fuerza política y militar. Las invasiones de Nadir Shah y Ahmad Shah Abdali y el consecuente declive del poder mogol dieron a los sijs la oportunidad de levantarse. Entre 1765 y 1800 pusieron el Punjab y Jammu bajo su control. A finales del siglo XVIII, Ranjit Singh, jefe del misl Sukercharia, puso bajo su control a todos los jefes sij al oeste del río Sutlej y estableció un poderoso imperio sij en el Punjab.

Después de la muerte de Ranjit Singh, hubo confusión en el estado sij. Los ingleses, que buscaban la oportunidad de expandir sus territorios, conquistaron el reino sij (1839-40).

Los Marathas:

Shahuji, el nieto de Shivaji, que había sido encarcelado por Aurangzeb, fue liberado por Bahadur Shah en 1707. El estado de Maratha en ese momento estaba gobernado por Tara Bai, la reina regente. Una guerra civil estalló entre los dos Shahu salió victorioso.

Shahuji nombró a Balaji Vishwanath como su Peshwa o Primer Ministro en 1713. Balaji Vishwanath concentró todo el poder en sus propias manos y se convirtió en el verdadero gobernante de los Marathas. El rey quedó relegado a un segundo plano. Balaji Vishwanath asignó áreas separadas a los sardars (jefes) Maratha para la recolección de impuestos de chauth y sardeshmukhi.

Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761) extendió aún más el imperio en diferentes direcciones. El poder de Maratha alcanzó su apogeo debajo de él. Los marathas pronto llegaron a Delhi y ofrecieron su apoyo al emperador mogol. La expulsión del agente de Ahmad Shah Abdali del Punjab llevó a los Marathas a un conflicto abierto con Ahmad Shah Abdali.

La batalla entre las dos fuerzas se libró en Panipat en enero de 1761. Los Marathas fueron completamente derrotados. Casi 28.000 soldados murieron. Los Peshwa murieron en junio de 1761. La batalla de Panipat destruyó la posibilidad de que los Marathas emergieran como la potencia más fuerte de la India. Para los británicos, esta batalla fue de inmensa importancia. La derrota de Maratha abrió el camino para el surgimiento del poder británico en India.

Cabe señalar que los poderes indios eran lo suficientemente fuertes como para destruirlo y unirlo al Imperio Mughal, pero no lo suficientemente fuertes como para unirlo o crear algo nuevo en su lugar. Posiblemente solo los Marathas poseían la fuerza para llenar el vacío político creado por la desintegración del Imperio Mughal. Pero carecían de visión política y sucumbieron al poder británico.


HISTORIA

El Imperio Mughal fue fundado por Babur, un gobernante de Asia Central que descendía del conquistador turco-mongol Timur (el fundador del Imperio Timurid) por parte de su padre y de Chagatai, el segundo hijo del gobernante mongol Genghis Khan, del lado de su madre. [33] Expulsado de sus dominios ancestrales en Asia Central, Babur se dirigió a la India para satisfacer sus ambiciones. Se estableció en Kabul y luego avanzó constantemente hacia el sur hacia la India desde Afganistán a través del paso de Khyber. [33] Las fuerzas de Babur & # 8217 ocuparon gran parte del norte de la India después de su victoria en Panipat en 1526. [33] Sin embargo, la preocupación por las guerras y las campañas militares no permitió al nuevo emperador consolidar los logros que había logrado en la India. [33] La inestabilidad del imperio se hizo evidente con su hijo, Humayun, que fue expulsado de la India y llevado a Persia por los rebeldes. [33] El exilio de Humayun & # 8217 en Persia estableció lazos diplomáticos entre las Cortes Safavid y Mughal, y condujo a una creciente influencia cultural persa en el Imperio Mughal. La restauración del gobierno de Mughal comenzó después del regreso triunfal de Humayun de Persia en 1555, pero murió de un accidente fatal poco después. [33] El hijo de Humayun & # 8217, Akbar, sucedió en el trono bajo un regente, Bairam Khan, quien ayudó a consolidar el Imperio Mughal en la India. [33]

A través de la guerra y la diplomacia, Akbar pudo extender el imperio en todas las direcciones y controló casi todo el subcontinente indio al norte del río Godavari. Creó una nueva clase de nobleza leal a él de la aristocracia militar de los grupos sociales de la India, implementó un gobierno moderno y apoyó los desarrollos culturales. [33] Al mismo tiempo, Akbar intensificó el comercio con empresas comerciales europeas. India desarrolló una economía fuerte y estable, que condujo a la expansión comercial y al desarrollo económico. Akbar permitió la libre expresión de la religión e intentó resolver las diferencias sociopolíticas y culturales en su imperio estableciendo una nueva religión, Din-i-Ilahi, con fuertes características de un culto gobernante. [33] Dejó a sus sucesores en un estado internamente estable, que estaba en medio de su edad de oro, pero antes de mucho tiempo surgirían signos de debilidad política. [33] El hijo de Akbar y # 8217, Jahangir, gobernó el imperio en su apogeo, pero era adicto al opio, descuidaba los asuntos del estado y estaba bajo la influencia de camarillas de la corte rivales. [33] Durante el reinado de Jahangir & # 8217s hijo, Shah Jahan, la cultura y el esplendor de la lujosa corte mogol alcanzaron su cenit como lo ejemplifica el Taj Mahal. [33] El mantenimiento de la corte, en este momento, comenzó a costar más que los ingresos. [33]

El hijo mayor de Shah Jahan, el liberal Dara Shikoh, se convirtió en regente en 1658, como resultado de la enfermedad de su padre. Sin embargo, un hijo menor, Aurangzeb, se alió con la ortodoxia islámica contra su hermano, quien defendió una cultura sincrética hindú-musulmana, y ascendió al trono. Aurangzeb derrotó a Dara en 1659 y lo hizo ejecutar. [33] Aunque Shah Jahan se recuperó por completo de su enfermedad, Aurangzeb lo declaró incompetente para gobernar y lo encarceló. Durante el reinado de Aurangzeb, el imperio ganó fuerza política una vez más, pero su conservadurismo e intolerancia religiosos socavaron la estabilidad de la sociedad mogol. [33] Aurangzeb expandió el imperio para incluir casi todo el sur de Asia, pero a su muerte en 1707, muchas partes del imperio estaban en rebelión abierta. [33] El hijo de Aurangzeb & # 8217, Shah Alam, derogó las políticas religiosas de su padre e intentó reformar la administración. Sin embargo, después de su muerte en 1712, la dinastía Mughal se hundió en el caos y las violentas disputas. Solo en 1719, cuatro emperadores subieron sucesivamente al trono. [33]

Durante el reinado de Muhammad Shah, el imperio comenzó a desintegrarse y vastas extensiones del centro de la India pasaron de manos de Mughal a manos de Maratha. La lejana campaña india de Nadir Shah, que anteriormente había restablecido la soberanía iraní sobre la mayor parte de Asia occidental, el Cáucaso y Asia central, culminó con el saqueo de Delhi y destrozó los restos del poder y el prestigio de Mughal. [33] Muchas de las élites del imperio ahora buscaron controlar sus propios asuntos y se separaron para formar reinos independientes. [33] Pero, según Sugata Bose y Ayesha Jalal, el Emperador Mughal, sin embargo, continuó siendo la manifestación más alta de soberanía. No solo la nobleza musulmana, sino también los líderes maratha, hindú y sikh participaron en los reconocimientos ceremoniales del emperador como soberano de la India. [34] El gobierno de la compañía británica comenzó efectivamente en 1757 después de la Batalla de Plassey y duró hasta 1858, comenzando la era colonial británica efectiva sobre el subcontinente indio. El emperador mogol Shah Alam II hizo intentos inútiles de revertir el declive mogol, y finalmente tuvo que buscar la protección de poderes externos, es decir, del emir de Afganistán, Ahmed Shah Abdali, que condujo a la Tercera Batalla de Panipat entre el Imperio Maratha y el Afganos liderados por Abdali en 1761. En 1771, los Marathas recuperaron Delhi del control afgano y en 1784 se convirtieron oficialmente en los protectores del emperador en Delhi, [35] una situación que continuó hasta después de la Tercera Guerra Anglo-Maratha. A partir de entonces, la Compañía Británica de las Indias Orientales se convirtió en la protectora de la dinastía Mughal en Delhi. [34] Después de una aplastante derrota en la guerra de 1857-1858 que nominalmente dirigió, el último mogol, Bahadur Shah Zafar, fue depuesto por la Compañía Británica de las Indias Orientales y exiliado en 1858. A través de la Ley del Gobierno de la India de 1858 la Corona Británica asumió el control directo de la India en la forma del nuevo Raj británico. En 1876, la reina británica Victoria asumió el título de emperatriz de la India.

EXPLICACIONES DE LA DECLINACIÓN

Los historiadores han ofrecido numerosas explicaciones para el rápido colapso del Imperio Mughal entre 1707 y 1720, después de un siglo de crecimiento y prosperidad. En términos fiscales, el trono perdió los ingresos necesarios para pagar a sus principales oficiales, los emires (nobles) y sus séquitos. El emperador perdió autoridad, ya que los oficiales imperiales ampliamente dispersos perdieron la confianza en las autoridades centrales e hicieron sus propios tratos con hombres de influencia locales. El ejército imperial, empantanado en largas e inútiles guerras contra los marathas más agresivos, perdió su espíritu de lucha. Finalmente llegó una serie de violentas disputas políticas por el control del trono. Después de la ejecución del emperador Farrukhsiyar en 1719, los estados sucesores de Mughal locales tomaron el poder en una región tras otra. [36]

Los cronistas contemporáneos lamentaron la decadencia que presenciaron, un tema recogido por los primeros historiadores británicos que querían subrayar la necesidad de un rejuvenecimiento liderado por los británicos. [37]

Desde la década de 1970, los historiadores han adoptado múltiples enfoques del declive, con poco consenso sobre qué factor era dominante. Las interpretaciones psicológicas enfatizan la depravación en los lugares altos, el lujo excesivo y puntos de vista cada vez más estrechos que dejaron a los gobernantes sin preparación para un desafío externo. Una escuela marxista (dirigida por Irfan Habib y con sede en la Universidad Musulmana de Aligarh) enfatiza la explotación excesiva del campesinado por parte de los ricos, lo que despojó de la voluntad y los medios para apoyar al régimen. [38] Karen Leonard se ha centrado en el fracaso del régimen para trabajar con los banqueros hindúes, cuyo apoyo financiero era cada vez más necesario, los banqueros luego ayudaron a los maratha y los británicos. [39] En una interpretación religiosa, algunos estudiosos argumentan que los Rajputs hindúes se rebelaron contra el dominio musulmán. [40] Finalmente, otros eruditos sostienen que la misma prosperidad del Imperio inspiró a las provincias a lograr un alto grado de independencia, debilitando así a la corte imperial. [41]


Contenido

Aurangzeb nació el 3 de noviembre de 1618 en Dahod, Gujarat. Fue el tercer hijo y el sexto hijo de Shah Jahan y Mumtaz Mahal. [35] En junio de 1626, después de una rebelión fallida de su padre, Aurangzeb y su hermano Dara Shukoh fueron rehenes bajo la corte de Lahore de sus abuelos (Nur Jahan y Jahangir). El 26 de febrero de 1628, Shah Jahan fue oficialmente declarado Emperador Mughal, y Aurangzeb regresó a vivir con sus padres en el Fuerte de Agra, donde Aurangzeb recibió su educación formal en árabe y persa. Su asignación diaria se fijó en Rs. 500, que gastó en educación religiosa y el estudio de la historia.

El 28 de mayo de 1633, Aurangzeb escapó de la muerte cuando un poderoso elefante de guerra atravesó el campamento imperial mogol. Cabalgó contra el elefante y golpeó su trompa con una lanza, [36] y se defendió con éxito de ser aplastado. El valor de Aurangzeb fue apreciado por su padre, quien le confirió el título de Bahadur (Valiente) y lo pesó en oro y presentó obsequios por valor de Rs. 200.000. Este evento se celebró en versos en persa y urdu, y Aurangzeb dijo: [37] [ aclaración necesaria ]

Si la pelea (de elefantes) hubiera terminado fatal para mí, no habría sido una vergüenza. La muerte deja caer el telón, incluso para los emperadores, no es una deshonra. ¡La vergüenza residía en lo que hicieron mis hermanos!

Guerra Bundela

Aurangzeb estaba nominalmente a cargo de la fuerza enviada a Bundelkhand con la intención de someter al gobernante rebelde de Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, que había atacado otro territorio desafiando la política de Shah Jahan y se negaba a expiar sus acciones. Por acuerdo, Aurangzeb permaneció en la retaguardia, lejos de los combates, y siguió el consejo de sus generales cuando el ejército mogol se reunió y comenzó el asedio de Orchha en 1635. La campaña tuvo éxito y Singh fue destituido del poder. [38]

Virrey del Deccan

Aurangzeb fue nombrado virrey del Deccan en 1636. [40] Después de que los vasallos de Shah Jahan habían sido devastados por la alarmante expansión de Ahmednagar durante el reinado del niño príncipe Murtaza Shah III de Nizam Shahi, el emperador envió a Aurangzeb, quien en 1636 trajo el La dinastía Nizam Shahi a su fin. [41] En 1637, Aurangzeb se casó con la princesa Safavid Dilras Banu Begum, conocida póstumamente como Rabia-ud-Daurani. Ella fue su primera esposa y consorte principal, además de su favorita. [42] [43] [44] También se enamoró de una esclava, Hira Bai, cuya muerte a una edad temprana lo afectó mucho. En su vejez, estuvo bajo los encantos de su concubina, Udaipuri Bai. Este último había sido anteriormente compañero de Dara Shukoh. [45] En el mismo año, 1637, Aurangzeb fue puesto a cargo de anexar el pequeño reino rajput de Baglana, lo que hizo con facilidad. [19]

En 1644, la hermana de Aurangzeb, Jahanara, se quemó cuando una lámpara cercana encendió los productos químicos de su perfume mientras se encontraba en Agra. Este hecho precipitó una crisis familiar con consecuencias políticas. Aurangzeb sufrió el disgusto de su padre al no regresar a Agra inmediatamente, sino tres semanas después. Shah Jahan había estado cuidando a Jahanara para que recuperara la salud en ese momento y miles de vasallos habían llegado a Agra para presentar sus respetos. [ cita necesaria ] Shah Jahan se indignó al ver a Aurangzeb entrar en el recinto interior del palacio con atuendo militar e inmediatamente lo destituyó de su puesto de virrey del Deccan. Aurangzeb tampoco se le permitió usar carpas rojas ni asociarse con el estandarte militar oficial de Mughal. emperador. [ cita necesaria ] Otras fuentes nos dicen que Aurangzeb fue despedido de su cargo porque Aurangzeb dejó la vida de lujo y se convirtió en Faqir. [46]

En 1645, fue excluido de la corte durante siete meses y mencionó su dolor a sus compañeros comandantes mogoles. A partir de entonces, Shah Jahan lo nombró gobernador de Gujarat, donde sirvió bien y fue recompensado por traer estabilidad. [ cita necesaria ]

En 1647, Shah Jahan trasladó a Aurangzeb de Gujarat para ser gobernador de Balkh, reemplazando a un hijo menor, Murad Baksh, que había demostrado ser ineficaz allí. La zona estaba siendo atacada por tribus uzbecas y turcomanas. Si bien la artillería y los mosquetes de Mughal eran una fuerza formidable, también lo eran las habilidades de escaramuza de sus oponentes. Las dos partes estaban estancadas y Aurangzeb descubrió que su ejército no podía vivir de la tierra, que estaba devastada por la guerra. Con el inicio del invierno, él y su padre tuvieron que hacer un trato en gran parte insatisfactorio con los uzbecos, entregando territorio a cambio del reconocimiento nominal de la soberanía mogol. La fuerza mogol sufrió aún más con los ataques de los uzbecos y otros miembros de la tribu mientras se retiraba a través de la nieve a Kabul. Al final de esta campaña de dos años, en la que Aurangzeb se había sumergido en una etapa tardía, se había gastado una gran suma de dinero para obtener pocas ganancias. [47]

Siguieron otras implicaciones militares desfavorables, ya que Aurangzeb fue nombrado gobernador de Multan y Sindh. Sus esfuerzos en 1649 y 1652 para desalojar a los safávidas en Kandahar, que habían retomado recientemente después de una década de control mogol, terminaron en un fracaso a medida que se acercaba el invierno. The logistical problems of supplying an army at the extremity of the empire, combined with the poor quality of armaments and the intransigence of the opposition have been cited by John Richards as the reasons for failure, and a third attempt in 1653, led by Dara Shikoh, met with the same outcome. [48]

Aurangzeb became viceroy of the Deccan again after he was replaced by Dara Shukoh in the attempt to recapture Kandahar. Aurangzeb regretted this and harboured feelings that Shikoh had manipulated the situation to serve his own ends. Aurangbad's two jagirs (land grants) were moved there as a consequence of his return and, because the Deccan was a relatively impoverished area, this caused him to lose out financially. So poor was the area that grants were required from Malwa and Gujarat in order to maintain the administration and the situation caused ill-feeling between father and son. Shah Jahan insisted that things could be improved if Aurangzeb made efforts to develop cultivation. [49] Aurangzeb appointed Murshid Quli Khan [ cita necesaria ] to extend to the Deccan the zabt revenue system used in northern India. Murshid Quli Khan organised a survey of agricultural land and a tax assessment on what it produced. To increase revenue, Murshid Quli Khan granted loans for seed, livestock, and irrigation infrastructure. The Deccan returned to prosperity, [40] [50]

Aurangzeb proposed to resolve the situation by attacking the dynastic occupants of Golconda (the Qutb Shahis) and Bijapur (the Adil Shahis). As an adjunct to resolving the financial difficulties, the proposal would also extend Mughal influence by accruing more lands. [49] Aurangzeb advanced against the Sultan of Bijapur and besieged Bidar. los Kiladar (governor or captain) of the fortified city, Sidi Marjan, was mortally wounded when a gunpowder magazine exploded. After twenty-seven days of hard fighting, Bidar was captured by the Mughals and Aurangzeb continued his advance. [51] Again, he was to feel that Dara had exerted influence on his father: believing that he was on the verge of victory in both instances, Aurangzeb was frustrated that Shah Jahan chose then to settle for negotiations with the opposing forces rather than pushing for complete victory. [49]

War of Succession

The four sons of Shah Jahan all held governorships during their father's reign. The emperor favoured the eldest, Dara Shukoh. [52] This had caused resentment among the younger three, who sought at various times to strengthen alliances between themselves and against Dara. There was no Mughal tradition of primogeniture, the systematic passing of rule, upon an emperor's death, to his eldest son. [49] Instead it was customary for sons to overthrow their father and for brothers to war to the death among themselves. [53] Historian Satish Chandra says that "In the ultimate resort, connections among the powerful military leaders, and military strength and capacity [were] the real arbiters". [49] The contest for power was primarily between Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb because, although all four sons had demonstrated competence in their official roles, it was around these two that the supporting cast of officials and other influential people mostly circulated. [54] There were ideological differences — Dara was an intellectual and a religious liberal in the mould of Akbar, while Aurangzeb was much more conservative — but, as historians Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf say, "To focus on divergent philosophies neglects the fact that Dara was a poor general and leader. It also ignores the fact that factional lines in the succession dispute were not, by and large, shaped by ideology." [55] Marc Gaborieau, professor of Indian studies at l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, [56] explains that "The loyalties of [officials and their armed contingents] seem to have been motivated more by their own interests, the closeness of the family relation and above all the charisma of the pretenders than by ideological divides." [53] Muslims and Hindus did not divide along religious lines in their support for one pretender or the other nor, according to Chandra, is there much evidence to support the belief that Jahanara and other members of the royal family were split in their support. Jahanara, certainly, interceded at various times on behalf of all of the princes and was well-regarded by Aurangzeb even though she shared the religious outlook of Dara. [57]

In 1656, a general under Qutb Shahi dynasty named Musa Khan led an army of 12,000 musketeers to attack Aurangzeb, [ where? ] and later on the same campaign Aurangzeb, in turn, rode against an army consisting 8,000 horsemen and 20,000 Karnataka musketeers. [58]

Having made clear that he wanted Dara to succeed him, Shah Jahan became ill with stranguary in 1657 and was closeted under the care of his favourite son in the newly built city of Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi). Rumours of the death of Shah Jahan abounded and the younger sons were concerned that Dara might be hiding it for Machiavellian reasons. Thus, they took action: Shah Shuja In Bengal, where he had been governor since 1637, Prince Muhammad Shuja crowned himself King at RajMahal, and brought his cavalry, artillery and river flotilla upriver towards Agra. Near Varanasi his forces confronted a defending army sent from Delhi under the command of Prince Sulaiman Shukoh, son of Dara Shukoh, and Raja Jai Singh [59] while Murad did the same in his governorship of Gujarat and Aurangzeb did so in the Deccan. It is not known whether these preparations were made in the mistaken belief that the rumours of death were true or whether the challengers were just taking advantage of the situation. [49]

After regaining some of his health, Shah Jahan moved to Agra and Dara urged him to send forces to challenge Shah Shuja and Murad, who had declared themselves rulers in their respective territories. While Shah Shuja was defeated at Banares in February 1658, the army sent to deal with Murad discovered to their surprise that he and Aurangzeb had combined their forces, [57] the two brothers having agreed to partition the empire once they had gained control of it. [60] The two armies clashed at Dharmat in April 1658, with Aurangzeb being the victor. Shuja was being chased through Bihar and the victory of Aurangzeb proved this to be a poor decision by Dara Shikoh, who now had a defeated force on one front and a successful force unnecessarily pre-occupied on another. Realising that his recalled Bihar forces would not arrive at Agra in time to resist the emboldened Aurangzeb's advance, Dara scrambled to form alliances in order but found that Aurangzeb had already courted key potential candidates. When Dara's disparate, hastily concocted army clashed with Aurangzeb's well-disciplined, battle-hardened force at the Battle of Samugarh in late May, neither Dara's men nor his generalship were any match for Aurangzeb. Dara had also become over-confident in his own abilities and, by ignoring advice not to lead in battle while his father was alive, he cemented the idea that he had usurped the throne. [57] "After the defeat of Dara, Shah Jahan was imprisoned in the fort of Agra where he spent eight long years under the care of his favourite daughter Jahanara." [61]

Aurangzeb then broke his arrangement with Murad Baksh, which probably had been his intention all along. [60] Instead of looking to partition the empire between himself and Murad, he had his brother arrested and imprisoned at Gwalior Fort. Murad was executed on 4 December 1661, ostensibly for the murder of the diwan of Gujarat sometime earlier. The allegation was encouraged by Aurangzeb, who caused the diwan's son to seek retribution for the death under the principles of Sharia law. [62] Meanwhile, Dara gathered his forces, and moved to the Punjab. The army sent against Shuja was trapped in the east, its generals Jai Singh and Dilir Khan submitted to Aurangzeb, but Dara's son, Suleiman Shikoh, escaped. Aurangzeb offered Shah Shuja the governorship of Bengal. This move had the effect of isolating Dara Shikoh and causing more troops to defect to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja, who had declared himself emperor in Bengal began to annex more territory and this prompted Aurangzeb to march from Punjab with a new and large army that fought during the Battle of Khajwa, where Shah Shuja and his chain-mail armoured war elephants were routed by the forces loyal to Aurangzeb. Shah Shuja then fled to Arakan (in present-day Burma), where he was executed by the local rulers. [63]

With Shuja and Murad disposed of, and with his father immured in Agra, Aurangzeb pursued Dara Shikoh, chasing him across the north-western bounds of the empire. Aurangzeb claimed that Dara was no longer a Muslim [ cita necesaria ] and accused him of poisoning the Mughal Grand Vizier Saadullah Khan. After a series of battles, defeats and retreats, Dara was betrayed by one of his generals, who arrested and bound him. In 1658, Aurangzeb arranged his formal coronation in Delhi.

On 10 August 1659, Dara was executed on grounds of apostasy and his head was sent to Shahjahan. [61] Having secured his position, Aurangzeb confined his frail father at the Agra Fort but did not mistreat him. Shah Jahan was cared for by Jahanara and died in 1666. [60]


In India, the Mughal Empire was one of the greatest empires ever. The Mughal Empire ruled hundreds of millions of people. India became united under one rule, and had very prosperous cultural and political years during the Mughal rule. There were many Muslim and Hindu kingdoms split all throughout India until the founders of the Mughal Empire came. There were some men such as Babar, grandson to the Great Asian conqueror Tamerlane and the conqueror Genghis Khan from the northern region of Ganges, river valley, who decided to take over Khyber, and eventually, all of India.

Babar (1526-1530):
the great grandson of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan, was the first Mughal emperor in India. He confronted and defeated Lodhi in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat, and so came to establish the Mughal Empire in India. Babar ruled until 1530, and was succeeded by his son Humayun.

Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556):
the eldest son of Babar, succeeded his father and became the second emperor of the Mughal Empire. He ruled India for nearly a decade but was ousted by Sher Shah Suri, the Afghan ruler. Humayun wandered for about 15 years after his defeat. Meanwhile, Sher Shah Suri died and Humayun was able to defeat his successor, Sikandar Suri and regain his crown of the Hindustan. However, soon after, he died in 1556 at a young age of 48 years.

Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545):
was an Afghan leader who took over the Mughal Empire after defeating Humayun in 1540. Sher Shah occupied the throne of Delhi for not more than five years, but his reign proved to be a landmark in the Sub-continent. As a king, he has several achievements in his credit. He established an efficient public administration. He set up a revenue collection system based on the measurement of land. Justice was provided to the common man. Numerous civil works were carried out during his short reign planting of trees, wells and building of Sarai (inns) for travellers was done. Roads were laid it was under his rule that the Grand Trunk road from Delhi to Kabul was built. The currency was also changed to finely minted silver coins called Dam. However, Sher Shah did not survive long after his accession on the throne and died in 1545 after a short reign of five years.

Akbar (1556-1605):
Humayun's heir, Akbar, was born in exile and was only 13 years old when his father died. Akbar's reign holds a certain prominence in history he was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After a series of conquests, he managed to subdue most of India. Areas not under the empire were designated as tributaries. He also adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Rajputs, hence reducing any threat from them. Akbar was not only a great conqueror, but a capable organizer and a great administrator as well. He set up a host of institutions that proved to be the foundation of an administrative system that operated even in British India. Akbar's rule also stands out due to his liberal policies towards the non-Muslims, his religious innovations, the land revenue system and his famous Mansabdari system. Akbar's Mansabdari system became the basis of Mughal military organization and civil administration.

Akbar died in 1605, nearly 50 years after his ascension to the throne, and was buried outside of Agra at Sikandra. His son Jehangir then assumed the throne.

Jehangir:
Akbar was succeeded by his son, Salim, who took the title of Jehangir, meaning "Conqueror of the World". He married Mehr-un-Nisa whom he gave the title of Nur Jahan (light of the world). He loved her with blind passion and handed over the complete reins of administration to her. He expanded the empire through the addition of Kangra and Kistwar and consolidated the Mughal rule in Bengal. Jehangir lacked the political enterprise of his father Akbar. But he was an honest man and a tolerant ruler. He strived to reform society and was tolerant towards Hindus, Christians and Jews. However, relations with Sikhs were strained, and the fifth of the ten Sikh gurus, Arjun Dev, was executed at Jehangir's orders for giving aid and comfort to Khusrau, Jehangir's rebellious son. Art, literature, and architecture prospered under Jehangir's rule, and the Mughal gardens in Srinagar remain an enduring testimony to his artistic taste. He died in 1627.

Shah Jahan:
Jehangir was succeeded by his second son Khurram in 1628. Khurram took the name of Shah Jahan, i.e. the Emperor of the World. He further expanded his Empire to Kandhar in the north and conquered most of Southern India. The Mughal Empire was at its zenith during Shah Jahan's rule. This was due to almost 100 years of unparalleled prosperity and peace. As a result, during this reign, the world witnessed the unique development of arts and culture of the Mughal Empire. Shah Jahan has been called the "architect king". The Red Fort and the Jama Masjid, both in Delhi, stand out as towering achievements of both civil engineering and art. Yet above all else, Shah Jahan is remembered today for the Taj Mahal, the massive white marble mausoleum constructed for his wife Mumtaz Mahal along the banks of the Yamuna River in Agra.

Aurangzeb:
Aurangzeb ascended the throne in 1658 and ruled supreme till 1707. Thus Aurangzeb ruled for 50 years, matching Akbar's reign in longevity. But unfortunately he kept his five sons away from the royal court with the result that none of them was trained in the art of government. This proved to be very damaging for the Mughals later on. During his 50 years of rule, Aurangzeb tried to fulfill his ambition of bringing the entire Sub-continent under one rule. It was under him that the Mughal Empire reached its peak in matter of area. He worked hard for years but his health broke down in the end. He left behind no personal wealth when he died in 1707, at the age of 90 years. With his death, the forces of disintegration set in and the mighty Mughal empire started collapsing.


A history of Mughal-Rajput relations between the 16th and early 17th centuries

To understand the history of Mughal-Rajput relations we must understand the history of three dynasties who would come to dominate the Northern part of the Indian subcontinent between the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. To begin with we must take a look at the Mughals.

At the time when Babur first contemplated the idea of invading India he had already conquered Kabul. Zahir-ud-din Mohammed Babur, was the eldest of Umar Sheikh Mirza, who was governor of Ferghana, which is a region in eastern Uzbekistan. Babur was by lineage the great-great grandson of Timur. Babur's early military career was full of frustrations. Born in 1483, he had assumed the Throne of his father at age 12, in the year 1494. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose Fergana soon after. In his attempts to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture both the regions failed when Muhammad Shaybani Khan the founder of the Shaybanid dynasty, defeated him. He conquered Kabul, in 1504, after having being driven away from his patrimony and homeland. He formed an alliance with the Safavid Shah Ismail I, to take parts of Turkestan as well as Samarkand itself only to lose them again to the Shaybanids.

Hence, he had decided to give up on the dreams of taking back Ferghana and Samarkand and set his eyes on North India. At the time he had only thought of conquering the Punjab region. A task he accomplished in his second campaign in 1525, after a short campaign in 1519. Thus, at this juncture, we the political situation in North India was ripe for conflict and power changes. In Punjab, Babur prepared for a march towards Delhi to take it and all the realms under the rule of the Lodi Dynasty from Ibrahim Lodi who was currently the sultan of the Delhi Sultanate, whose own relatives, Daulat Khan Lodi and Alauddin had invited Babur to invade the Delhi Sultanate. Under the Lodi Dynasty the Sultanate had lost most of its eastern and southern as well as western territories and Ibrahim ruled over merely the Upper Gangetic plains. Meanwhile, a third contender for power and perhaps bigger threat to Babur's rise was looming in the Rajputana, in the form of the Rajput Confederacy, which was the first of its kind since the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan. This Confederacy was formed under the auspicious leadership of Rana Sangram Singh, of House Sisodiya of Mewar which had risen in prestige and power at the cost of neighbouring Malwa and Gujurati Sultanates during the reign of Rana Sangram other wise known as Rana Sanga.

The following events are well known, Babur defeated the Lodis at Panipat and then faced the Rajputs at Khanwa in 1527. However after his victories at Chanderi and at Ghaghra, he soon died leaving the Empire to his son Humayun whose reign was turbulent and prospects uncertain until his son Akbar assumed the Throne.

Now let us look at the Sisodias of Mewar. This house of Rajputs traces it's origins from the legendary Suryavnshi lineage. But while records to back up such claims are obviously questionable, the historical foundation of this dynasty lies in the rise of Rana Hammir Singh, the founder of the Sisodiya Cadet Branch of the Guhila dynasty. The Guhila dynasty was extinguished by Alauddin Khalji after he besieged and conquered Chittor in 1303, their capital. But Rana Hammir Singh had taken back Chittor and since then reclaimed control of the region and re-established the dynasty under its cadet branch of the Sisodias by 1326. Owing to the legendary exploits of their kings and being one of the few Hindu noble houses that had remained independent during the successive reigns of various dynasties at the helm of the Delhi Sultanate, the House of Mewar carried weight amongst Rajput nobility.

Apart from Rana Hammir Singh, two rulers in particular, Rana Kumbharna Singh (1433-1468) and his great grandson Rana Sangram Singh (1508-1528), had raised the prestige of the House of Mewar to astronomical heights by not only defeating neighbouring Sultanates in Gujurat, Nagaur, Delhi and Malwa, but infact under the reign of Rana Sangram, actually conquering Gujurat and Malwa. Therefore, by 1526, most Rajput states had formed a Confederacy under the leadership of Rana Sanga. Ofcourse, following his defeat the Confederacy fell apart and while the house of Mewar still held a high place on the Rajput and indeed the Indian sociopolitical stage, there would never again be such a untied political front offered by the Rajputs.

In terms of the motivations and objectives of the Confederacy, it could be said that the Confederacy was buoyed together towards the political wills of the Rana of Mewar. Rana Sanga had made a policy to attack and acquire the territories of his kingdom's old enemies such as the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujurat, Nagaur and Malwa, and at the same time remove any traces of Turkic or Afghan dominion in North India. Therefore, it would be safe to say that had Babur not invaded Delhi and taken the Upper Ganga Valley, the Rana would have quite soon. Among the many noble houses that had joined the Rajput Confederacy was the next dynasty which will complete the puzzle to understanding the key players in North India and Mughal-Rajput history.

This was the Kachwahas of Amber. This dynasty claimed it's descent from the son Kush of the legendary King Rama of Ayodhya. Their ancestors allegedly migrated from Rama's kingdom of Kosala and established a new dynasty at Gwalior. After 31 generations, they moved to Rajputana and created a kingdom at Dhundhar. Dullah Rai, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers, defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and later completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars of Dausa and Deoti. However, in the early 16th century, they were conquered and vassalised by the Rathore ruler Maldeo of the kingdom of Marwar.

In 1527, the ruler of Amber who had joined the Rajput Confederacy was Prithviraj Singh I. Prithviraj had fought at Khanwa and like Rana Sanga, died soon afterwards, being succeeded by his son Puranmal. After Puranmal's succession, which was quite controversial, the Kachwaha domain became unstable over disputes regarding the succession of Puranmal to the Throne. This problem was only further exacerbated by neighbouring Rajput kingdoms that sought to capitalise on the situation. While accounts about Puranmal seeking the aid of Humayun are varying and quite contradictory we know for sure that after Puranmal, his brother Bhim Singh assumed the Throne. Bhim only reigned three and a half years before dying on 22 July 1537. He was succeeded in quick succession by two sons, Ratan Singh and Askaran, before the throne eventually passed to his younger brother Bharmal in 1548.

It is here that we arrive at a crucial juncture in Mughal-Rajput relations. In Mewar, the reigns were assumed by the 4th son of Rana Sanga, Maharana Udai Singh II, under whose reign the capital of Chittor was lost to Akbar in 1568 and the capital was shifted to Udaipur. Here his son, Maharana Pratap assumed the Throne after Udai died in 1572. Meanwhile, Akbar had overthrown his guardian Bairam Khan who had grown too ambitious and controlling and at the age of 18, the young Baadshaah of the Mughal Empire removed Bairam from service and continued his expeditions by directly controlling all affairs from 1560 onwards. Meanwhile, in 1562, the situation became critical for the Kachwahas of Amber when Mirza Muhammad Sharaf-ud-din Hussain was appointed Mughal governor of Mewat. Mirza led a large army to Amber which Bharmal could not resist. Mirza forced the Kachwahas to leave Amber and live in forests and hills. Bharmal promised a fixed tribute to Mirza and handed over his own son, Jagannath, and his nephews, Raj Singh and Khangar Singh, as hostages for its due payment. When Sharaf-ud-din was preparing to invade Amber again, Bharmal met Akbar's courtier, Chaghtai Khan. Fortunately, for Bharmal, Akbar was at Karavali (a village near Agra) on his way from Agra to Ajmer (on a pilgrimage to the dargah of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti). Bharmal himself met Akbar at his camp at Sanganer on 20 January 1562. Here, Bharmal proposed a marriage between Akbar and his eldest daughter Hira Kunwari. Therefore, when Akbar agreed, the Kachwahas were now relatives of Akbar, Bharmal was his father-in-law and was on par with the highest Muslim nobles of the Empire. Hence, Sharaf-ud-din Mirza, returned to Bharmal his lands and relatives and in the following years, the Kachwahas rendered unwavering service to the Mughals while they themselves enjoyed the highest salaries, status and prestige the Empire had to offer.

Hence, The House of Mewar, still held in the highest esteem by all Rajput nobility was in a period of decline and The House of Amber had united with the Mughals. Raja Bharmal was succeeded by his son Raja Bhagwant Das in 1574. He served as Akbar's General and was awarded a rank or mansab of 5000 along with the title of Amir-ul-Umra. He fought battles in Punjab, Kashmir where he decisively defeated the Kashmiri King Yousuf Shah Chak and Afghanistan as well and he held the governorship of Kabul. His daughter Manbhawati Bai was married off to the Mughal Prince and future Emperor Jehangir. He died in 1589 being succeeded by his son Raja Man Singh.

Raja Man Singh, assumed the Throne of Amber in 1589, but he had served with distinction at the Battle of Haldighati 1576 against the Maharana of Mewar, Maharana Pratap in a legendary battle, and in other campaigns as well. The reason why Akbar wanted to conquer Rajputana and especially Mewar was because with Mewar and the Rajputs at his flanks, his empire would never be secure, a fact he had learned by learning about the experiences of the Delhi Sultanate and their fruitless tussle with the Sisodiya dynasty. Yet, in his lifetime, Akbar could not conquer Mewar. Even after being defeated at Haldighati, where his army of 3000-4000 Rajputs and allied Bhils (400 men approx.), was defeated by Man Singh who commanded the Imperial Mughal Army roughly 8000-10,000 in numbers, Pratap Singh endured and by the end of his reign, he scored a decisive victory against the Mughals at Dewair in 1582 and took back Western Mewar including Kumbhalgarh, Udaipur and Gogunda through guerilla warfare and even destroyed newly built mosques in these regions in retaliation. He died in 1597.

After his death, his son Maharana Amar Singh I (r. 1597-1620) assumed the Throne and followed his father's policy of resisting Mughal overlordship. Amar Singh continued to resist the Mughals and it was clear that he could not be taken in a battle, so Mewar was devastated financially and in manpower due to the policy of Shah Jahan (son of Jahangir, Jahangir had become Emperor in 1605 after Akbar's death) , to scorch the lands of Mewar and make it incapable of supporting the efforts of Amar Singh. Finally, in 1615, Amar Singh submitted to the Mughals. Mewar including Chittor was assigned to him as Watan Jagir or hereditary patrimony. He secured a favourable peace treaty and it was ensured that Mewar would never bend his knee to the Mughal Emperors or serve at his court personally nor would the House of Mewar enter into matrimonial relations with the Mughals.

Hence, we see a clear policy emerging from the Mughals towards the Rajputs since the reign of Akbar. The first, religious tolerance and engagement at a political level, treating them as warriors and nobles on par with the Iranis or Turks in the Imperial service. The second, realising that the prestige of Mewar and the potential of the Rajputs uniting once again was an ever present threat and therefore it was better to assuage them. Third, following a policy of providing high posts and port folios to Rajput nobles who allied or accepted Mughal suzerainty. Fourth, matrimonial relations were never the prerequisite for such alliances as many Rajputs had previously simply accepted Mughal suzerainty and had acquired high posts for themselves.

Now in terms of contemporary social perceptions of such events,the attitudes in Rajputana and in general accross North India were shaped by the actions and decisions of the Rajput houses of Mewar and Amber. While Mewar only grew in prestige as the last stronghold and symbol of strength and resistance for the more conservative elements in Hindu society, the House of Amber was universally recognised as a house which produced some of the finest administrators and generals the Empire would ever know. And yet, the more conservative elements in Hindu society saw the House of Amber as traitors, ofcourse such opinions were never discussed in front of the Amber Rajas.

Until the reign of Aurangzeb, the Rajputs were more or less, united under the Mughal cause. The Kings Of Amber, fought and led expeditions as far west and Afghanistan and Qandahar and as east as Bengal and Odissa. Here are a few examples of their exploits :

In 1585, Man Singh I was sent to conquer Afghanistan and silence the rebels there. Man Singh decisively defeated five major tribes of the Afghans including Yusufzai and "Mandar" tribes. The flag of Amber was changed from "Katchanar" (green climber in white base) to "Pachranga" (five colored) to commemorate this victory. This flag continued in use until accession of Jaipur state in India. This permanently crushed the revolt and the area remained peaceful thereafter.

In 1586 CE, Akbar sent another army under Raja Bhagwant Das, father of Prince Man Singh I to win Kashmir. Kashmir was included in the Mughal Empire and made a Sarkar (district) of Kabul province.

Man Singh I also conquered Bihar in similar fashion. Abul Fazl has described Man Singhs campaign in Bihar in the following words. "The Raja united ability with courage and genius with strenuous action".

Man Singh after conquering Bihar was ordered to defeat the Afghan Sultan Qatlu Khan Lohani of Orissa, Man Singh set out for Orissa on April 1590. By 1592, Odissa was also conquered by him.

His grandson Jai Singh I (r. 1621 - 1667), was another great General of the Mughal Empire. He was the second Raja to receive the title Mirza Raja, the first being his grandfather Man Singh I who received it from Akbar. During his career he served first in the Deccan, subduing the Gonds and then in Central Asia, fighting at Kandahar in the Mughal-Safavid wars and at Balkh.

Jai Singh, who had begun his own military career in the Deccan, was then appointed to lead a 14,000 strong army against Shivaji. And in 1665, he forced Shivaji to sign the Treaty of Purandar being the only noble in the Empire to subdue the Maratha King. Although the opportunity his victories provided were made meaningless thanks to Aurangzeb's inability to compromise on his orthodox beliefs and accept Shivaji into his court with proper honours.

In conclusion, until the reign of Aurangzeb, whose interference into the succession matters of Rajput states, a matter which was left to the Rajputs by Akbar himself, the Rajputs, especially the house of Amber, continued to serve the Empire with loyalty and distinction. Both to serve the interests of the Empire and the interests of their own houses and kingdoms as well.

"A History of Jaipur" by Sir Jadunath Sarkar

"Shivaji and His Times" By Jadunath Sarkar

" Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206–1526) Part 2" by Satish Chandra

"Akbarnama" by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Henry Beveridge (Trans.)

"A Military History of India" by Sir Jadunath Sarkar

"History and Culture of the Indian People Volume VII : The Mughal Empire" by R.C Majumdar


Islamic Calligraphy & Textiles

The textile industry thrived during Aurangzeb’s reign. It employed hundreds of artisans across South Asia, who created intricate works of silk and brocade. Turbans, carpets, shawls, and other finely embroidered textiles were highly valued. Some were even exported to Europe through trading channels. Aurangzeb also patronized Islamic calligraphy and was himself an accomplished calligraphist.

The Decline of Mughal Arts under Aurangzeb: Floor spread, ca. 18th century, Mughal Empire (India) © LACMA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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Token status of the Mughal throne - History

In South Asia today, we see Muslim and Hindu cultures as worlds apart, but this was not always the case in the history of the Subcontinent.

Recently, I read a section of the Akbarnama (Tale of Akbar) where both Hindu and Muslim astrologers were asked to cast the Emperor Akbar’s horoscope. Though I did not bat an eyelid at such an occurrence, I was reminded of a comment made by a student in Pakistan five years ago that has stayed with me ever since: “Mughal badshah asal mein mussalmaan nahin thhe, is liay unko Hinduon say koi masla nahin tha.” [The Mughals had no problem with Hindus since they were not really Muslims.]

Neither at the time nor now do I fault my student for this comment. My student was merely echoing a pervasive viewpoint from his social context far removed from my own intellectual world.

Collaboration and intimacy between Hindus and Muslims is a settled issue amongst Mughal historians, even as communalist politics continues to unsettle South Asia today. However, research findings by Mughal historians are often inaccessible to the public, especially in Pakistan, due to limited resources and avenues for history, education and public discourse. To bridge this gap, here is a viewpoint based on evidence and conclusions from decades of research by Mughal historians in North America, Europe and India.

The Mughals were Muslim rulers who saw no contradiction but sought peace and prosperity in collaboration and intimacy with Hindus and other faith communities. The Mughal state was neither secular nor was Islam its sole state religion. The temptation of imposing the categories of modern South Asian states on the pre-modern past should be avoided.

Decades of research by Mughal historians have established collaboration and intimacy between Hindus and Muslims, even as communalist politics unsettles South Asia today

The Mughals identified as Muslims alongside employing, marrying, and engaging those from other faith communities. They sponsored and participated in rituals and festivals we today associate with Hindus, Zoroastrians and other faiths. This political philosophy was called sulh-i kull (peace with all).

As Muslim rulers, why did the Mughals have no problem with Hindus? There are at least three explanations offered across research in Mughal history:

1) The Mughals became Indian. The first Mughal, Babur, was curious about India’s society and environment, yet nostalgic for his home in Central Asia. Babur particularly longed for Ferghana Valley’s famous peaches, as illustrated by Stephen F. Dale in The Garden of the Eight Paradises. Two generations later, his grandson Akbar was at home in India. He married Hindu Rajput women and made India his emotional world. Akbar requested his court poet Faizi specifically for a story about love in India, leading to the first Persian translation of the Nal Daman, according to historian Muzaffar Alam.

Akbar’s grandson Shah Jahan was three-quarter Rajput by blood. Less than two hundred years later, the last Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, lamented the loss of his homeland, India, while in exile in Burma in his famous verse: lagta nahin hai dil mera ujrray dayaar mein/Kis ki bani hai ‘aalam-i-na-payedaar mein (My heart has no repose in this isolated valley/ Who has gotten by in a futile world).

Alongside becoming Indian, the Mughals saw no conflict in being of Central Asian origin and also located themselves within broader Persianate and Islamic realms. Azfar Moin has shown in his 2012 work, The Millennial Sovereign, that Mongol descent was key for Mughal claims to divine kingship at the turn of the Islamic millenium. In a recent book, Persianate Selves, Mana Kia illustrates that scholars at the Mughal court saw themselves as part of a shared Persianate geography, transcending the modern national constructions of Iran, India, Afghanistan and Central Asia. Trade, pilgrimage and knowledge provided continued links between the Mughals, their successor states and the larger Islamic world, as several works by Nile Green attest and the forthcoming works of Rishad Choudhury and Usman Hamid will demonstrate. All four identities — Indian, Central Asian, Persianate and Islamic — were hence claimed by the Mughals, without the contestations we would encounter today.

2) Religious difference with Hindus was not a political faultline for the Mughals or preceding Muslim rulers. The Mughals did not view Hindus as their political rivals by virtue of their religion. Mughal rule was characterised by long-lasting curiosity and respect for Indian knowledge systems, alongside collaborative governance with Hindus and other faith communities. On many occasions, the lines of difference were even blurred, as we shall see below. Books in recent years by Audrey Truschke and Rajeev Kinra convincingly show that both Sanskrit knowledge and Brahmin bureaucrats had a high status at the Mughal court. Akbar’s finance minister, Raja Todar Mal, was valued for bringing the best practices of the Rajputs to shape Mughal economic policies.

Aurangzeb’s conflict with Rajput nobles was not religiously motivated, as M. Athar Ali successfully demonstrates in his 1966 book The Mughal Nobility Under Aurangzeb. Rather, Aurangzeb redistributed administrative assignments from the Rajputs to a rising local nobility in the Deccan in order to consolidate his political power. Munis D. Faruqui shows in his 2012 book The Princes of the Mughal Empire 1504–1719 that, for Mughal princes, strengthening local alliances through collaboration and marriage proved to be a make-or-break factor as they contended for the Mughal throne.

Historians have also successfully challenged the notion that mediaeval Muslim conquests of India occurred to wipe out infidels. In A Book of Conquest, Mannan Ahmed Asif argues that the arrival of Muhammad bin Qasim did not obliterate local practices but rather Islamic and Indic political ethics converged in mediaeval Sindh. Earlier, Romila Thapar demonstrates that the looting of Hindu temples was a financially-motivated practice of mediaeval warfare amongst Hindus and Muslims, often to pay mercenary soldiers from temple treasuries. The looting of the Somnath temple by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026 was, by no means, an exceptional act of violence by a Muslim invader.

3) Islam in Mughal and mediaeval India took many shapes in conversation and contact with a range of local beliefs and practices. Several historians have written about inter-religious and inter-sectarian exchange under the Mughals and in earlier periods. Historian Supriya Gandhi has shown in The Emperor Who Never Was that Dara Shikoh’s political philosophy and personal spirituality were constituted by both Sufi and Vedantic ideas. This was part of a longer tradition of dialogue on philosophical and ethical concerns, between different faith communities at the Mughal court as the work of Corinne Lefevre on the Majalis-i Jahangiri illustrates.

Similarly, there is emerging evidence of Shia and Sunni intellectual collaboration alongside theological debate in Mughal India, as well as interconnections between Sufism and Islamic law. In An Indian Economic & Social History Review, Ali Anooshahr has recently shown that a steady stream of Shia and Sunni scholars from Iran and Central Asia arrived at Mughal and regional courts. A notable example is Mir Fathullah Shirazi, who developed military cannons and contributed to astronomy, law and financial administration. In his forthcoming work, Daniel Jacobius Morgan shows the interconnection between Shariah-minded legalism and Sufi mysticism, through the works of Shah Waliullah’s family.

Moving beyond the Mughal context, in Monsoon Islam, Sebastian Prange illuminates how mediaeval Muslim communities on the Malabar Coast forged varying traditions from other regions in South Asia, based on trade and the environment. In a study from an even earlier period, Finbarr B. Flood illustrates, through changes in architecture, objects and coins, that mediaeval Muslim cultures in South Asia assumed distinct forms based on encounters with regional Hindu and Buddhist practices.

Decades of research on Mughal and mediaeval history disprove an increasingly pervasive viewpoint of cultural incompatibility and religious difference amongst Muslims and Hindus. This misperception was initially perpetuated by colonial policies and solidified by South Asia’s many partitions.

Unfortunately, this misperception has been further strengthened by anti-Muslim sentiments and policies across the border in Modi’s India. Perhaps, the next time nationalists attempt to halt the construction of a Hindu temple in Pakistan or Muslims are maligned and killed for beef consumption and temples are constructed on razed mosque sites in India, we can turn to our shared Mughal past as an alternative model for Muslim-Hindu relations.

Mariam Sabri is a PhD Candidate at the University of California Berkeley, specialising in Mughal history and the history of science


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